环境

命令行前缀说明:

  • # 表示使用 root 账号执行命令
  • $ 表示使用非 root 账号(例如:oracle)执行命令

测试虚拟机

  • CPU:4核

  • 内存:8G

  • 操作系统

    # cat /etc/redhat-release
    CentOS Linux release 7.5.1804 (Core)
    

下载 Oracle 11g:Oracle官方网站

选择与你系统和架构相同的版本

下载完成后,有两个压缩文件

# ll
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1.2G Mar 17 10:44 linux.x64_11gR2_database_1of2.zip
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1.1G Mar 17 10:44 linux.x64_11gR2_database_2of2.zip

安装依赖包

修改 yum 源

修改 yum 源为阿里云源,加速下载包文件

CentOS7 替换阿里云源

# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo.backup
# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
# yum clean all && yum makecache

安装依赖包

  • 安装

    # yum -y install binutils compat-libstdc++-33 elfutils-libelf elfutils-libelf-devel expat gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc-common glibc-devel glibc-headers libaio libaio-devel libgcc libstdc++ libstdc++-devel make pdksh sysstat unixODBC unixODBC-devel
    
  • 检查依赖是否安装完整

    # rpm -q binutils compat-libstdc++-33 elfutils-libelf elfutils-libelf-devel expat gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc-common glibc-devel glibc-headers libaio libaio-devel libgcc libstdc++ libstdc++-devel make pdksh sysstat unixODBC unixODBC-devel | grep "not installed"
    package pdksh is not installed
    

    发现 pdksh 没有安装成功

    执行 yum -y install pdksh 再次安装,发现 CentOS 7 没有相关的安装包

    # yum -y install pdksh
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
    Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
     * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
     * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
     * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
    No package pdksh available.
    Error: Nothing to do
    

    通过 wget 命令直接下载 pdkshrpm

    # wget http://vault.centos.org/5.11/os/x86_64/CentOS/pdksh-5.2.14-37.el5_8.1.x86_64.rpm
    

    安装 pdksh

    # yum -y install pdksh-5.2.14-37.el5_8.1.x86_64.rpm
    

    再次检查依赖包安装完整性,无提示则通过。

    # rpm -q binutils compat-libstdc++-33 elfutils-libelf elfutils-libelf-devel expat gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc-common glibc-devel glibc-headers libaio libaio-devel libgcc libstdc++ libstdc++-devel make pdksh sysstat unixODBC unixODBC-devel | grep "not installed"
    

添加 oracle 用户及组

  1. 创建 oracle 用户组

    # groupadd oinstall
    # groupadd dba
    # groupadd asmadmin
    # groupadd asmdba
    
  2. 创建 oracle 用户并加入到组

    # useradd -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba oracle -d /home/oracle
    

    添加完成后查看 oracle 用户

    # id oracle
    uid=1000(oracle) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall),1001(dba),1003(asmdba)
    
  3. 初始化 oracle 用户的密码

    # passwd oracle
    

配置 hostname 及防火墙

关闭 selinux并开放防火墙端口

# setenforce 0
# sed -i "s/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g" /etc/selinux/config
# firewall-cmd --zone=public --permanent --add-port=1521/tcp
# firewall-cmd --reload

修改 hostname

# hostnamectl set-hostname centos-oracle

修改完成后退出终端并重新登录

添加本机 IP 映射到 /etc/hosts

# echo '192.168.1.96 centos-oracle' >> /etc/hosts

测试hostname

# ping -c 2 centos-oracle
PING centos-oracle (192.168.1.96) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from centos-oracle (192.168.1.96): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.065 ms
64 bytes from centos-oracle (192.168.1.96): icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.037 ms

--- centos-oracle ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 999ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.037/0.051/0.065/0.014 ms

优化 OS 内核参数

# vim /etc/sysctl.conf

添加内容如下:

fs.aio-max-nr=1048576
fs.file-max=6815744
kernel.shmall=2097152
kernel.shmmni=4096
kernel.shmmax=4294967296
kernel.sem=250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range=9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default=262144
net.core.rmem_max=4194304
net.core.wmem_default=262144
net.core.wmem_max=1048586

参数详解:

  • fs.aio-max-nr

    同时可以拥有的的异步IO请求数目。

    推荐值是:1048576 其实它等于 $ 1024 \times 1024 = 1048576$ 也就是 1024K 个。

  • fs.file-max

    表示一个进程可以打开的文件句柄的最大数量。

  • kernel.shmall 的单位是页。

    简述:2097152 =8G ,4194304=16G

    详述:对于 X86 的 linux 系统,一页=4k,也就是4096字节。kernel.shmall = 2097152 就是 $8G \times 1024 \times 1024 \div 4k = 2097152$ 就是说可用共享内存一共 8G。

    一个共享内存段的最大大小是16G,那么需要共享内存页数是 $16GB \div 4KB = 16777216KB \div 4KB = 4194304$ (页),也就是 64Bit 系统下 16GB 物理内存,设置 kernel.shmall = 4194304 才符合要求(几乎是原来设置2097152的两倍)。这时可以将 shmmax 参数调整到 16G 了,同时可以修改 SGA_MAX_SIZESGA_TARGET 为 12G(您想设置的 SGA 最大大小,当然也可以是 2G~14G 等,还要协调 PGA 参数及 OS 等其他内存使用,不能设置太满,比如16G)。

  • kernel.shmmni

    共享内存段的最大数量,shmmni 缺省值 4096 ,一般肯定是够用了。

  • kernel.shmmax

    该参数可设置为物理内存的一半。

    Shmmax 是核心参数中最重要的参数之一,用于定义单个共享内存段的最大值(以字节为单位),设置应该足够大,能在一个共享内存段下容纳下整个的 SGA,设置的过低可能会导致需要创建多个共享内存段,这样可能导致系统性能的下降,最大值为 16GB (在大多数情况下,该值应该比 SGA 大)。

    其值应 >=sag_max_size 初始化参数的大小,否则 SAG 由多个内存段构成,效率降低,还要不小于物理内存的一半,默认情况下在 32位x86系统 中,Oracle SGA 最大不能超过 1.7GB。缺省为 32M,对于 oracle 来说,该缺省值太低了,通常将其设置为2G(2147483648)。针对8G的服务器,至少 4G 的配置,则是4294967296

  • kernel.sem

    表示设置的信号量

  • net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range

    专用服务器模式下与用户进程通信时分配给用户的端口区间

  • net.core.rmem_default

    默认接收缓冲区大小

  • net.core.rmem_max

    接收缓冲区最大值

  • net.core.wmem_default

    默认的发送缓冲区大小

  • net.core.wmem_max

    发送缓冲区最大值

添加并保存后,执行命令使参数生效

# sysctl -p
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.shmmax = 4294967296
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048586
  • 使用 ipcs -l 查看结果

    # ipcs -l
    
    ------ Messages Limits --------
    max queues system wide = 15637
    max size of message (bytes) = 8192
    default max size of queue (bytes) = 16384
    
    ------ Shared Memory Limits --------
    max number of segments = 4096
    max seg size (kbytes) = 4194304
    max total shared memory (kbytes) = 8388608
    min seg size (bytes) = 1
    
    ------ Semaphore Limits --------
    max number of arrays = 128
    max semaphores per array = 250
    max semaphores system wide = 32000
    max ops per semop call = 100
    semaphore max value = 32767
    
  • 使用 ipcs -u 查看实际使用情况

    # ipcs -u
    
    ------ Messages Status --------
    allocated queues = 0
    used headers = 0
    used space = 0 bytes
    
    ------ Shared Memory Status --------
    segments allocated 0
    pages allocated 0
    pages resident  0
    pages swapped   0
    Swap performance: 0 attempts	 0 successes
    
    ------ Semaphore Status --------
    used arrays = 0
    allocated semaphores = 0
    

限制 oracle 用户权限

限制 oracle 用户 shell 权限

# vim /etc/security/limits.conf

在末尾添加

oracle    soft    nproc    2047
oracle    hard    nproc    16384
oracle    soft    nofile    1024
oracle    hard    nofile    65536

limits.conf 配置说明

格式:

<domain>    <type>    <resource>    <value>
  • domain

    username|@groupname:设置需要被限制的用户名,组名前面加 @用户名 区别。 * 表示所有用户(注意有的系统不支持)。

  • type

    • soft 指的是当前系统生效的设置值
    • hard 表明系统中所能设定的最大值(soft 的限制不能比 hard 限制高 )
    • - 就表明同时设置了 soft 和 hard 的值
  • resource

    针对Oracle的我们主要配置nproc nofile

    • as:地址空间限制
    • rss:最大持久设置大小
    • cpu:以分钟为单位的最多 CPU 时间
    • core:限制内核文件的大小
    • date:最大数据大小
    • stack:最大栈大小
    • fsize:最大文件大小
    • noproc进程的最大数目
    • nofile打开文件的最大数目
    • memlock:最大锁定内存地址空间
    • maxlogins:此用户允许登录的最大数目
  • value

    限制的值

修改登陆验证配置文件

# vim /etc/pam.d/login

末尾增加

session    required     /lib64/security/pam_limits.so
session    required     pam_limits.so

修改 profile 配置文件

# vim /etc/profile

末尾增加

# Oracle
if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
    if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
        ulimit -p 16384
        ulimit -n 65536
    else
        ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
    fi
fi

保存后使之生效

# source /etc/profile

创建 oracle 安装目录

# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0   # oracle home 目录
# mkdir /u01/app/oracle/oradata             # 数据文件存放目录
# mkdir /u01/app/oracle/inventory           # 安装日志存放目录
# mkdir /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area  # 快速恢复分区
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle

配置 oracle 用户环境变量

切换至 oracle 用户

# su - oracle

修改 oracle 用户 home 路径下 .bash_profile 配置文件

$ vim ~/.bash_profile

在末尾添加

# Oracle
umask 022
export ORACLE_HOSTNAME=centos-oracle
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.0/
export ORACLE_SID=ORCL
export PATH=.:$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch:$ORACLE_HOME/jdk/bin:$PATH
export LC_ALL="en_US"
export LANG="en_US"
export NLS_LANG="AMERICAN_AMERICA.ZHS16GBK"
export NLS_DATE_FORMAT="YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS"

使配置生效

$ source /home/oracle/.bash_profile

使用 env 命令查看环境变量

解压 oracle 压缩文件

切换回 root 用户,解压 oracle 压缩文件至 /u01/ 路径下

# unzip linux.x64_11gR2_database_1of2.zip -d /u01/
# unzip linux.x64_11gR2_database_2of2.zip -d /u01/
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/database/

解压完成后

# mkdir /u01/etc/
# cp /u01/database/response/* /u01/etc/
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/etc/

修改 db_install.rsp

# vim /u01/etc/db_install.rsp

修改内容如下:

oracle.install.option=INSTALL_DB_SWONLY

DECLINE_SECURITY_UPDATES=true

UNIX_GROUP_NAME=oinstall

INVENTORY_LOCATION=/u01/app/oracle/inventory

SELECTED_LANGUAGES=en,zh_CN

ORACLE_HOSTNAME=centos-oracle

ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0

ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle

oracle.install.db.InstallEdition=EE

oracle.install.db.DBA_GROUP=dba

oracle.install.db.OPER_GROUP=dba

保存退出后,开始安装 oracle

安装 oracle

切换至 oracle 用户

# su - oracle

进入解压后的 oracle 安装目录

$ cd /u01/database/

开始执行静默安装

$ ./runInstaller -silent -ignorePrereq -responseFile /u01/etc/db_install.rsp
Starting Oracle Universal Installer...

Checking Temp space: must be greater than 120 MB.   Actual 11280 MB    Passed
Checking swap space: must be greater than 150 MB.   Actual 2047 MB    Passed
Preparing to launch Oracle Universal Installer from /tmp/OraInstall2020-03-18_10-01-22AM. Please wait ...[oracle@centos-oracle database]$ [WARNING] [INS-32055] The Central Inventory is located in the Oracle base.
   CAUSE: The Central Inventory is located in the Oracle base.
   ACTION: Oracle recommends placing this Central Inventory in a location outside the Oracle base directory.
[WARNING] [INS-32055] The Central Inventory is located in the Oracle base.
   CAUSE: The Central Inventory is located in the Oracle base.
   ACTION: Oracle recommends placing this Central Inventory in a location outside the Oracle base directory.
You can find the log of this install session at:
 /u01/app/oracle/inventory/logs/installActions2020-03-18_10-01-22AM.log
The following configuration scripts need to be executed as the "root" user.
 #!/bin/sh
 #Root scripts to run

/u01/app/oracle/inventory/orainstRoot.sh
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/root.sh
To execute the configuration scripts:
	 1. Open a terminal window
	 2. Log in as "root"
	 3. Run the scripts
	 4. Return to this window and hit "Enter" key to continue

Successfully Setup Software.

根据提示的日志路径,安装期间可以新开个终端并使用 tail 命令查看 oracle 的安装日志

# tail -f /u01/app/oracle/inventory/logs/installActions2020-03-18_10-01-22AM.log

根据 ./runInstaller 输出提示

新开一个终端并以 root 账号执行脚本

  • 执行orainstRoot.sh

    # /u01/app/oracle/inventory/orainstRoot.sh
    Changing permissions of /u01/app/oracle/inventory.
    Adding read,write permissions for group.
    Removing read,write,execute permissions for world.
    
    Changing groupname of /u01/app/oracle/inventory to oinstall.
    The execution of the script is complete.
    
  • 执行 root.sh

    # /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/root.sh
    Check /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/install/root_centos-oracle_2020-03-18_10-09-45.log for the output of root script
    

根据提示再次检查日志

# tail -f /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/install/root_centos-oracle_2020-03-17_17-18-23.log

配置静默监听

切换到 oracle 用户

# su - oracle

配置监听

$ netca /silent /responsefile /u01/etc/netca.rsp

Parsing command line arguments:
    Parameter "silent" = true
    Parameter "responsefile" = /u01/etc/netca.rsp
Done parsing command line arguments.
Oracle Net Services Configuration:
Profile configuration complete.
Oracle Net Listener Startup:
    Running Listener Control:
      /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/bin/lsnrctl start LISTENER
    Listener Control complete.
    Listener started successfully.
Listener configuration complete.
Oracle Net Services configuration successful. The exit code is 0

查看监听端口

$ netstat -tnulp | grep 1521
(Not all processes could be identified, non-owned process info
 will not be shown, you would have to be root to see it all.)
tcp6       0      0 :::1521                 :::*                    LISTEN      13686/tnslsnr

监听启动与关闭命令

  • 启动:lsnrctl start
  • 状态:lsnrctl status
  • 关闭:lsnrctl stop

静默创建数据库

$ vim /u01/etc/dbca.rsp

修改内容如下

GDBNAME = "orcl"

SID = "orcl"

SYSPASSWORD = "oracle"

SYSTEMPASSWORD = "oracle"

SYSMANPASSWORD = "oracle"

DBSNMPPASSWORD = "oracle"

DATAFILEDESTINATION = /u01/app/oracle/oradata

RECOVERYAREADESTINATION=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area

CHARACTERSET = "AL32UTF8"

TOTALMEMORY = "6553"

其中 TOTALMEMORY 设置为总内存的 80%,即8G内存的80%

$8G \times 1024 \times 0.8 \approx 6553MB$

保存退出后,执行静默创建数据库

$ dbca -silent -responseFile /u01/etc/dbca.rsp
Copying database files
1% complete
3% complete
11% complete
18% complete
26% complete
37% complete
Creating and starting Oracle instance
40% complete
45% complete
50% complete
55% complete
56% complete
60% complete
62% complete
Completing Database Creation
66% complete
70% complete
73% complete
85% complete
96% complete
100% complete
Look at the log file "/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/dbca/orcl/orcl.log" for further details.

查看 oracle 实例进程

$ ps -ef | grep ora_ | grep -v grep
oracle   14038     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_pmon_orcl
oracle   14040     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_vktm_orcl
oracle   14044     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_gen0_orcl
oracle   14046     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_diag_orcl
oracle   14048     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_dbrm_orcl
oracle   14050     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_psp0_orcl
oracle   14052     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_dia0_orcl
oracle   14054     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_mman_orcl
oracle   14056     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_dbw0_orcl
oracle   14058     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_lgwr_orcl
oracle   14060     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_ckpt_orcl
oracle   14062     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_smon_orcl
oracle   14064     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_reco_orcl
oracle   14066     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_mmon_orcl
oracle   14068     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_mmnl_orcl
oracle   14070     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_d000_orcl
oracle   14072     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_s000_orcl
oracle   14082     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_qmnc_orcl
oracle   14097     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_cjq0_orcl
oracle   14099     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_q000_orcl
oracle   14101     1  0 10:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_q001_orcl

查看监听状态

$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on 18-MAR-2020 10:27:07

Copyright (c) 1991, 2009, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
Start Date                18-MAR-2020 10:10:42
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 16 min. 26 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Parameter File   /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File         /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/centos-oracle/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=centos-oracle)(PORT=1521)))
Services Summary...
Service "orcl" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "orcl", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "orclXDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "orcl", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully

登录 sqlplus,查看实例状态

如果查询报错,参考:ORA-01034

$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> select status from v$instance;

STATUS
------------------------
OPEN

查看数据库编码

SQL> select userenv('language') from dual;

USERENV('LANGUAGE')
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8

查看数据库版本信息

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production
PL/SQL Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
CORE	11.2.0.1.0	Production
TNS for Linux: Version 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 11.2.0.1.0 - Production

激活 scott 用户

SQL> alter user scott account unlock;

User altered.

SQL> alter user scott identified by tiger;

User altered.

远程连接 Oracle

以 Navicat 为例,推荐使用PL/SQL

使用刚激活的账号:scott 密码:tiger

以 OS X 上 Navicat 连接为例。Windows 下 Navicat 连接 Oracle 需要手动配置 oci.dll

错误处理

ORA-01034

问题描述:

使用 sqlplus 登陆后执行 SQL 报错。

$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> select status from v$instance;
select status from v$instance
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01034: ORACLE not available
Process ID: 0
Session ID: 0 Serial number: 0

解决方法:

关闭数据库实例并重启

SQL> shutdown immedate
SP2-0717: illegal SHUTDOWN option
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1603411968 bytes
Fixed Size		    2213776 bytes
Variable Size		  402655344 bytes
Database Buffers	 1191182336 bytes
Redo Buffers		    7360512 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

如果报错参考:ORA-01078

ORA-01078

问题描述:

启动数据库实例报错。

SQL> startup;
ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
LRM-00109: could not open parameter file '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbs/initORCL.ora'

错误原因:

oracle9i10g11g 等几个版本中,数据库默认使用 spfile 启动数据库,如果 spfile 不存在,则就会出现上述错误。

解决方法:

find /u01/ -name pfile 命令查找 pfile 文件的位置

$ find /u01/ -name pfile
/u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/pfile

进入查找到的文件夹

$ cd /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/pfile
$ ll
total 4
-rw-r-----. 1 oracle oinstall 2041 Mar 18 10:21 init.ora.2182020102439

$ORACLE_BASE/admin/orcl11g/pfile 目录下的 init.ora.2182020102439 拷贝到 $ORACLE_HOME/dbs 目录下,并命名为 initORCL.ora 即可。

注意initORCL.ora 中的 initORCL 为你创建的实例名 ORACLE_SID,同 静默创建数据库 中配置一致

$ cp /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/pfile/init.ora.2182020102439 $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initORCL.ora

再次登陆 sqlplus

$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> startup;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1603411968 bytes
Fixed Size		    2213776 bytes
Variable Size		  402655344 bytes
Database Buffers	 1191182336 bytes
Redo Buffers		    7360512 bytes
ORA-01102: cannot mount database in EXCLUSIVE mode

SQL> select status from v$instance;

STATUS
------------------------
STARTED

ORA-01102

问题描述:

由于文件被占用,无法锁定导致数据库无法挂载。

SQL> startup;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1603411968 bytes
Fixed Size		    2213776 bytes
Variable Size		  402655344 bytes
Database Buffers	 1191182336 bytes
Redo Buffers		    7360512 bytes
ORA-01102: cannot mount database in EXCLUSIVE mode

解决方法:

进入数据库关闭实例

$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> shutdown immediate
ORA-01507: database not mounted


ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> exit

进入 $ORACLE_HOME/dbs,找到名为 lk* 的文件,正常情况下是没有这个文件的

$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
$ ls
hc_DBUA0.dat  hc_orcl.dat  hc_ORCL.dat  init.ora  initORCL.ora  lkORCL  orapworcl  spfileorcl.ora

切换到 root 用户

# fuser -u /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbs/lkORCL
-bash: fuser: command not found

如果出现 fuser: command not found,则执行命令安装 yum -y install psmisc

# fuser -u /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbs/lkORCL
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbs/lkORCL: 14038(oracle) 14044(oracle) 14048(oracle) 14050(oracle) 14054(oracle) 14056(oracle) 14058(oracle) 14060(oracle) 14062(oracle) 14064(oracle) 14066(oracle) 14068(oracle) 14082(oracle) 14097(oracle) 14099(oracle) 14101(oracle) 14141(oracle) 14143(oracle)
# fuser -k /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbs/lkORCL
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbs/lkORCL: 14038 14044 14048 14050 14054 14056 14058 14060 14062 14064 14066 14068 14082 14097 14099 14101 14141 14143
# fuser -u /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbs/lkORCL

重新启动数据库看看,这个时候数据库没有报错了,能正常起来。

$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1603411968 bytes
Fixed Size		    2213776 bytes
Variable Size		  402655344 bytes
Database Buffers	 1191182336 bytes
Redo Buffers		    7360512 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

标题:CentOS7 静默安装 Oracle 11g
作者:akiya789
地址:https://little-star.love/articles/2020/03/18/1584514464288.html

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